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Gum Graft surgery

 Gum Graft surgery
Natick Family Dental

A gum graft (also known as a gingival graft or periodontal plastic surgery), is a collective name for surgical periodontal procedures that aim to cover an exposed tooth root surface with grafted oral tissue.

Exposed tooth roots are usually the result of gingival recession due to periodontal disease. There are other common causes, including overly aggressive brushing and trauma.

Here are some of the most common types of gum grafting:

  • Free gingival graft – This procedure is often used to thicken gum tissue. A layer of tissue is removed from the palate and relocated to the area affected by gum recession. Both sites will quickly heal without permanent damage
  • Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft – This procedure is commonly used to cover exposed roots. Tissue is removed fairly painlessly from the outer layer of the palate and relocated to the site of gum recession
  • Acellular dermal matrix allograft – This procedure uses medically processed, donated human tissue as a tissue source for the graft. The advantage of this is procedure is that there is no need for a donor site from the patient's palate (and thus, less pain).

What Causes Receding Gums?

Attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa are the two types of gum tissues. Attached gingiva is -- surprise! -- attached to the tooth and underlying bone. It is immovable and fairly resistant to everyday trauma caused by eating and tooth brushing. Alveolar mucosa is the more delicate tissue of the two -- located beneath the attached gingiva, alveolar mucosa is loose and allows for movement of the lips and cheeks. Unlike attached gingiva, alveolar mucosa cannot withstand "normal" trauma caused by eating and brushing.

As mentioned earlier, receding gums can be traced to gum disease, but that's just one cause. Over time, brushing too aggressively can wear down your gums and cause them to recede. People who are born with naturally thin gingiva are most vulnerable to this. Orthodontic therapies can also stretch the gum line. A high frenum attachment can also trigger gum recession. The frenum is the muscle between the upper or lower front teeth; if it pulls on the gum margin, recession may result.

Gum grafting may be recommended to correct a high frenum attachment if the frenum is pulling on your gum margin. During this type of procedure, the frenum is surgically released and a new band of hard gum is added to re-establish the amount of attached gingiva required for support and movement.

Reasons for gum grafting

Gum grafting is a common periodontal procedure. Though the name might sound frightening, the procedure is commonly performed with excellent results.

Here are some of the major benefits associated with gum grafting:

  • Reduced sensitivity – When the tooth root becomes exposed, eating or drinking hot or cold foods can cause extreme sensitivity to the teeth. Gum grafting surgery permanently covers the exposed root, helps reduce discomfort, and restores the good health of the gums
  • Improved appearance – Periodontal disease is characterized by gum recession and inflammation. Gum recession and root exposure can make the teeth look longer than normal and the smile to appear “toothy.” Gum grafting can make the teeth look shorter, more symmetrical and generally more pleasing to look at. In addition, adjacent tissue can be enhanced and augmented during the procedure for aesthetic purposes
  • Improved gum health – Periodontal disease can progress and destroy gum tissue very rapidly. If left untreated, a large amount of gum tissue can be lost in a short period of time. Gum grafting can help halt tissue and bone loss; preventing further problems and protecting exposed roots from further decay

What does gum grafting treatment involve?

Once the need for gum grafting surgery has been determined, there are several treatments the dentist will want perform before gum grafting takes place. First, the teeth must be thoroughly cleaned supra and subgingivally to remove calculus (tartar) and bacteria. The dentist can also provide literature, advice and educational tools to increase the effectiveness of homecare and help reduce the susceptibility of periodontal disease in the future.

The gum grafting procedure is usually performed under local anesthetic. The exact procedure will depend much on whether tissue is coming from the patient's palate or a tissue bank.

Initially, small incisions will be made at the recipient site to create a small pocket to accommodate the graft. Then a split thickness incision is made and the connective tissue graft is inserted into the space between the two sections of tissue. The graft is usually slightly larger than the recession area, so some excess will be apparent.

Sutures are often placed to further stabilize the graft and to prevent any shifting from the designated site. Surgical material is used to protect the surgical area during the first week of healing. Uniformity and healing of the gums will be achieved in approximately six weeks.

Do I Need a Gum Graft?

Gum recession can be restored on a single tooth or multiple teeth, and a graft may be needed if you have:

  • Periodontal disease
  • Root cavities
  • Cosmetic concerns
  • Sensitive teeth or roots
  • Root exposure
  • Gum and bone tissue loss

Do not lose your teeth to gum recession. Call our Periodontics to find out more about your options in Natick, MA for treating receding gums.

Our periodontics primary focus has been and continues to be their patients. Our long- serving staff bring the same concern. Patients find comfortable, thoughtful, expert care for their periodontal needs from the practice. If you have any questions about the practice or the treatments we offer, please contact us today. If you are ready to request an appointment with our Periodontics, then you may do so by calling us at 508-720-5000.  Our periodontist serves communities like Natick, Sherborn, Dover, Wellesley, Framingham, Wayland, Needham, Ashland, Holliston, and Southborough.